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In Computational intelligence and neuroscience

Overall prediction of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) remains inadequate, as more than half of patients with oral cavity cancer are detected at later stages. It is generally accepted that the differential diagnosis of OCSCC is usually difficult and requires expertise and experience. Diagnosis from biopsy tissue is a complex process, and it is slow, costly, and prone to human error. To overcome these problems, a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) approach was proposed in this work. A dataset comprising two categories, normal epithelium of the oral cavity (NEOR) and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), was used. Feature extraction was performed from this dataset using four deep learning (DL) models (VGG16, AlexNet, ResNet50, and Inception V3) to realize artificial intelligence of medial things (AIoMT). Binary Particle Swarm Optimization (BPSO) was used to select the best features. The effects of Reinhard stain normalization on performance were also investigated. After the best features were extracted and selected, they were classified using the XGBoost. The best classification accuracy of 96.3% was obtained when using Inception V3 with BPSO. This approach significantly contributes to improving the diagnostic efficiency of OCSCC patients using histopathological images while reducing diagnostic costs.

Deif Mohanad A, Attar Hani, Amer Ayman, Elhaty Ismail A, Khosravi Mohammad R, Solyman Ahmed A A