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In Expert systems with applications

Early and accurate identification of the balance deficits could reduce falls, in particular for older adults, a prone population. Our work investigates deep neural networks' capacity to identify human balance patterns towards predicting fall-risk. Human balance ability can be characterized based on commonly-used balance metrics, such as those derived from the force-plate time series. We hypothesized that low, moderate, and high risk of falling can be characterized based on balance metrics, derived from the force-plate time series, in conjunction with deep learning algorithms. Further, we predicted that our proposed One-One-One Deep Neural Networks algorithm provides a considerable increase in performance compared to other algorithms. Here, an open source force-plate dataset, which quantified human balance from a wide demographic of human participants (163 females and males aged 18-86) for varied standing conditions (eyes-open firm surface, eyes-closed firm surface, eyes-open foam surface, eyes-closed foam surface) was used. Classification was based on one of the several indicators of fall-risk tied to the fear of falling: the clinically-used Falls Efficacy Scale (FES) assessment. For human fall-risk prediction, the deep learning architecture implemented comprised of: Recurrent Neural Network (RNN), Long-Short Time Memory (LSTM), One Dimensional Convolutional Neural Network (1D-CNN), and a proposed One-One-One Deep Neural Network. Results showed that our One-One-One Deep Neural Networks algorithm outperformed the other aforementioned algorithms and state-of-the-art models on the same dataset. With an accuracy, precision, and sensitivity of 99.9%, 100%, 100%, respectively at the 12th epoch, we found that our proposed One-One-One Deep Neural Network model is the most efficient neural network in predicting human's fall-risk (based on the FES measure) using the force-plate time series signal. This is a novel methodology for an accurate prediction of human risk of fall.

Savadkoohi M, Oladunni T, Thompson L A


Aging, Balance disorder, Balance impairment, C-LSTM, CNN, Deep Learning, Fall-risk, Force-plate, LSTM, Neural Network, RNN