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In Computational intelligence and neuroscience

Electrocardiography (ECG) is a well-known noninvasive technique in medical science that provides information about the heart's rhythm and current conditions. Automatic ECG arrhythmia diagnosis relieves doctors' workload and improves diagnosis effectiveness and efficiency. This study proposes an automatic end-to-end 2D CNN (two-dimensional convolution neural networks) deep learning method with an effective DenseNet model for addressing arrhythmias recognition. To begin, the proposed model is trained and evaluated on the 97720 and 141404 beat images extracted from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Beth Israel Hospital (MIT-BIH) arrhythmia and St. Petersburg Institute of Cardiological Technics (INCART) datasets (both are imbalanced class datasets) using a stratified 5-fold evaluation strategy. The data is classified into four groups: N (normal), V (ventricular ectopic), S (supraventricular ectopic), and F (fusion), based on the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation® (AAMI). The experimental results show that the proposed model outperforms state-of-the-art models for recognizing arrhythmias, with the accuracy of 99.80% and 99.63%, precision of 98.34% and 98.94%, and F 1-score of 98.91% and 98.91% on the MIT-BIH arrhythmia and INCART datasets, respectively. Using a transfer learning mechanism, the proposed model is also evaluated with only five individuals of supraventricular MIT-BIH arrhythmia and five individuals of European ST-T datasets (both of which are also class imbalanced) and achieved satisfactory results. So, the proposed model is more generalized and could be a prosperous solution for arrhythmias recognition from class imbalance datasets in real-life applications.

Ullah Hadaate, Bin Heyat Md Belal, Akhtar Faijan, Sumbul Muaad, Abdullah Y Islam, Md Sajjatul Abbas, Zia Pan, Taisong Gao, Min Lin, Yuan Lai