In Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI
BACKGROUND : Research suggests that treatment of multiple brain metastases (BMs) with stereotactic radiosurgery shows improvement when metastases are detected early, providing a case for BM detection capabilities on small lesions.
PURPOSE : To demonstrate automatic detection of BM on three MRI datasets using a deep learning-based approach. To improve the performance of the network is iteratively co-trained with datasets from different domains. A systematic approach is proposed to prevent catastrophic forgetting during co-training.
STUDY TYPE : Retrospective.
POPULATION : A total of 156 patients (105 ground truth and 51 pseudo labels) with 1502 BM (BrainMetShare); 121 patients with 722 BM (local); 400 patients with 447 primary gliomas (BrATS). Training/pseudo labels/validation data were distributed 84/51/21 (BrainMetShare). Training/validation data were split: 121/23 (local) and 375/25 (BrATS).
FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE : A 5 T and 3 T/T1 spin-echo postcontrast (T1-gradient echo) (BrainMetShare), 3 T/T1 magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo postcontrast (T1-MPRAGE) (local), 0.5 T, 1 T, and 1.16 T/T1-weighted-fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (T1-FLAIR) (BrATS).
ASSESSMENT : The ground truth was manually segmented by two (BrainMetShare) and four (BrATS) radiologists and manually annotated by one (local) radiologist. Confidence and volume based domain adaptation (CAVEAT) method of co-training the three datasets on a 3D nonlocal convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture was implemented to detect BM.
STATISTICAL TESTS : The performance was evaluated using sensitivity and false positive rates per patient (FP/patient) and free receiver operating characteristic (FROC) analysis at seven predefined (1/8, 1/4, 1/2, 1, 2, 4, and 8) FPs per scan.
RESULTS : The sensitivity and FP/patient from a held-out set registered 0.811 at 2.952 FP/patient (BrainMetShare), 0.74 at 3.130 (local), and 0.723 at 2.240 (BrATS) using the CAVEAT approach with lesions as small as 1 mm being detected.
DATA CONCLUSION : Improved sensitivities at lower FP can be achieved by co-training datasets via the CAVEAT paradigm to address the problem of data sparsity.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE : 3 TECHNICAL EFFICACY STAGE: 2.
Liew Andrea, Lee Chun Cheng, Subramaniam Valarmathy, Lan Boon Leong, Tan Maxine
BM detection, BRATS, BrainMetShare, domain adaptation, nonlocal networks, self-training