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In Sleep medicine

Classifying sleep stages in real-time represents considerable potential, for instance in enabling interactive noise masking in noisy environments when persons are in a state of light sleep or to support clinical staff in analyzing sleep patterns etc. However, the current gold standard for classifying sleep stages, Polysomnography (PSG), is too cumbersome to apply outside controlled hospital settings and requires manual as well as highly specialized knowledge to classify sleep stages. Using data from Consumer Sleep Technologies (CSTs) to inform machine learning algorithms represent a promising opportunity for automating the process of classifying sleep stages, also in settings outside the confinements of clinical expert settings. This study reviews 27 papers that use CSTs in combination with Artificial Intelligence (AI) models to classify sleep stages. AI models and their performance are described and compared to synthesize current state of the art in sleep stage classification with CSTs. Furthermore, gaps in the current approaches are shown and how these AI models could be improved in the near-future. Lastly, the challenges of designing interactions for users that are asleep are highlighted pointing towards avenues of more interactive sleep interventions based on AI-infused CSTs solutions.

Djanian Shagen, Bruun Anders, Nielsen Thomas Dyhre


Artificial intelligence, Interaction, Intervention, Sleep