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In PLoS computational biology

In recent years, major advances have been made in various chromosome conformation capture technologies to further satisfy the needs of researchers for high-quality, high-resolution contact interactions. Discriminating the loops from genome-wide contact interactions is crucial for dissecting three-dimensional(3D) genome structure and function. Here, we present a deep learning method to predict genome-wide chromatin loops, called DLoopCaller, by combining accessible chromatin landscapes and raw Hi-C contact maps. Some available orthogonal data ChIA-PET/HiChIP and Capture Hi-C were used to generate positive samples with a wider contact matrix which provides the possibility to find more potential genome-wide chromatin loops. The experimental results demonstrate that DLoopCaller effectively improves the accuracy of predicting genome-wide chromatin loops compared to the state-of-the-art method Peakachu. Moreover, compared to two of most popular loop callers, such as HiCCUPS and Fit-Hi-C, DLoopCaller identifies some unique interactions. We conclude that a combination of chromatin landscapes on the one-dimensional genome contributes to understanding the 3D genome organization, and the identified chromatin loops reveal cell-type specificity and transcription factor motif co-enrichment across different cell lines and species.

Wang Siguo, Zhang Qinhu, He Ying, Cui Zhen, Guo Zhenghao, Han Kyungsook, Huang De-Shuang