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In Frontiers in artificial intelligence

A rapidly increasing rate of melanoma diagnosis has been noted over the past three decades, and nearly 1 in 4 skin biopsies are diagnosed as melanocytic lesions. The gold standard for diagnosis of melanoma is the histopathological examination by a pathologist to analyze biopsy material at both the cellular and structural levels. A pathologist's diagnosis is often subjective and prone to variability, while deep learning image analysis methods may improve and complement current diagnostic and prognostic capabilities. Mitoses are important entities when reviewing skin biopsy cases as their presence carries prognostic information; thus, their precise detection is an important factor for clinical care. In addition, semantic segmentation of clinically important structures in skin biopsies might help the diagnosis pipeline with an accurate classification. We aim to provide prognostic and diagnostic information on skin biopsy images, including the detection of cellular level entities, segmentation of clinically important tissue structures, and other important factors toward the accurate diagnosis of skin biopsy images. This paper is an overview of our work on analysis of digital whole slide skin biopsy images, including mitotic figure (mitosis) detection, semantic segmentation, diagnosis, and analysis of pathologists' viewing patterns, and with new work on melanocyte detection. Deep learning has been applied to our methods for all the detection, segmentation, and diagnosis work. In our studies, deep learning is proven superior to prior approaches to skin biopsy analysis. Our work on analysis of pathologists' viewing patterns is the only such work in the skin biopsy literature. Our work covers the whole spectrum from low-level entities through diagnosis and understanding what pathologists do in performing their diagnoses.

Nofallah Shima, Wu Wenjun, Liu Kechun, Ghezloo Fatemeh, Elmore Joann G, Shapiro Linda G


deep learning, diagnosis, melanocyte, melanoma, mitosis, semantic segmentation, viewing patterns, whole slide image