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In Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine

Magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) is a fast MRI-based technique that allows for multiparametric quantitative characterization of the tissues of interest in a single acquisition. In particular, it has gained attention in the field of cardiac imaging due to its ability to provide simultaneous and co-registered myocardial T1 and T2 mapping in a single breath-held cardiac MRF scan, in addition to other parameters. Initial results in small healthy subject groups and clinical studies have demonstrated the feasibility and potential of MRF imaging. Ongoing research is being conducted to improve the accuracy, efficiency, and robustness of cardiac MRF. However, these improvements usually increase the complexity of image reconstruction and dictionary generation and introduce the need for sequence optimization. Each of these steps increase the computational demand and processing time of MRF. The latest advances in artificial intelligence (AI), including progress in deep learning and the development of neural networks for MRI, now present an opportunity to efficiently address these issues. Artificial intelligence can be used to optimize candidate sequences and reduce the memory demand and computational time required for reconstruction and post-processing. Recently, proposed machine learning-based approaches have been shown to reduce dictionary generation and reconstruction times by several orders of magnitude. Such applications of AI should help to remove these bottlenecks and speed up cardiac MRF, improving its practical utility and allowing for its potential inclusion in clinical routine. This review aims to summarize the latest developments in artificial intelligence applied to cardiac MRF. Particularly, we focus on the application of machine learning at different steps of the MRF process, such as sequence optimization, dictionary generation and image reconstruction.

Velasco Carlos, Fletcher Thomas J, Botnar René M, Prieto Claudia


artificial intelligence (AI), cardiac MRF, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF), multiparametric imaging