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In Radiology. Artificial intelligence

Minimizing bias is critical to adoption and implementation of machine learning (ML) in clinical practice. Systematic mathematical biases produce consistent and reproducible differences between the observed and expected performance of ML systems, resulting in suboptimal performance. Such biases can be traced back to various phases of ML development: data handling, model development, and performance evaluation. This report presents 12 suboptimal practices during data handling of an ML study, explains how those practices can lead to biases, and describes what may be done to mitigate them. Authors employ an arbitrary and simplified framework that splits ML data handling into four steps: data collection, data investigation, data splitting, and feature engineering. Examples from the available research literature are provided. A Google Colaboratory Jupyter notebook includes code examples to demonstrate the suboptimal practices and steps to prevent them. Keywords: Data Handling, Bias, Machine Learning, Deep Learning, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), Computer-aided Diagnosis (CAD) © RSNA, 2022.

Rouzrokh Pouria, Khosravi Bardia, Faghani Shahriar, Moassefi Mana, Vera Garcia Diana V, Singh Yashbir, Zhang Kuan, Conte Gian Marco, Erickson Bradley J


Bias, Computer-aided Diagnosis (CAD), Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), Data Handling, Deep Learning, Machine Learning