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In Radiology. Artificial intelligence

Neural networks were trained for segmentation and longitudinal assessment of posttreatment diffuse glioma. A retrospective cohort (from January 2018 to December 2019) of 298 patients with diffuse glioma (mean age, 52 years ± 14 [SD]; 177 men; 152 patients with glioblastoma, 72 patients with astrocytoma, and 74 patients with oligodendroglioma) who underwent two consecutive multimodal MRI examinations were randomly selected into training (n = 198) and testing (n = 100) samples. A posttreatment tumor segmentation three-dimensional nnU-Net convolutional neural network with multichannel inputs (T1, T2, and T1 postcontrast and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery [FLAIR]) was trained to segment three multiclass tissue types (peritumoral edematous, infiltrated, or treatment-changed tissue [ED]; active tumor or enhancing tissue [AT]; and necrotic core). Separate longitudinal change nnU-Nets were trained on registered and subtracted FLAIR and T1 postlongitudinal images to localize and better quantify and classify changes in ED and AT. Segmentation Dice scores, volume similarities, and 95th percentile Hausdorff distances ranged from 0.72 to 0.89, 0.90 to 0.96, and 2.5 to 3.6 mm, respectively. Accuracy rates of the posttreatment tumor segmentation and longitudinal change networks being able to classify longitudinal changes in ED and AT as increased, decreased, or unchanged were 76%-79% and 90%-91%, respectively. The accuracy levels of the longitudinal change networks were not significantly different from those of three neuroradiologists (accuracy, 90%-92%; κ, 0.58-0.63; P > .05). The results of this study support the potential clinical value of artificial intelligence-based automated longitudinal assessment of posttreatment diffuse glioma. Keywords: MR Imaging, Neuro-Oncology, Neural Networks, CNS, Brain/Brain Stem, Segmentation, Quantification, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) Supplemental material is available for this article. © RSNA, 2022.

Rudie Jeffrey D, Calabrese Evan, Saluja Rachit, Weiss David, Colby John B, Cha Soonmee, Hess Christopher P, Rauschecker Andreas M, Sugrue Leo P, Villanueva-Meyer Javier E


Brain/Brain Stem, CNS, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), MR Imaging, Neural Networks, Neuro-Oncology, Quantification, Segmentation