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In Medical & biological engineering & computing ; h5-index 32.0

Recently, Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) have been successfully applied to many domains of interest including medical diagnosis. Due to the availability of a large quantity of data, it is possible to build reliable AI systems that assist humans in making decisions. The recent Covid-19 pandemic quickly spread over the world causing serious health problems and severe economic and social damage. Computer scientists are actively working together with doctors on different ML models to diagnose Covid-19 patients using Computed Tomography (CT) scans and clinical data. In this work, we propose a neural-symbolic system that predicts if a Covid-19 patient arriving at the hospital will end in a critical condition. The proposed system relies on Deep 3D Convolutional Neural Networks (3D-CNNs) for analyzing lung CT scans of Covid-19 patients, Decision Trees (DTs) for predicting if a Covid-19 patient will eventually pass away by analyzing its clinical data, and a neural system that integrates the previous ones using Hierarchical Probabilistic Logic Programs (HPLPs). Predicting if a Covid-19 patient will end in a critical condition is useful for managing the limited number of intensive care at the hospital. Moreover, knowing early that a Covid-19 patient could end in serious conditions allows doctors to gain early knowledge on patients and provide special treatment to those predicted to finish in critical conditions. The proposed system, entitled Neural HPLP, obtains good performance in terms of area under the receiver operating characteristic and precision curves with values of about 0.96 for both metrics. Therefore, with Neural HPLP, it is possible not only to efficiently predict if Covid-19 patients will end in severe conditions but also possible to provide an explanation of the prediction. This makes Neural HPLP explainable, interpretable, and reliable. Graphical abstract Representation of Neural HPLP. From top to bottom, the two different types of data collected from the same patient and used in this project are represented. This data feeds the two different machine learning systems and the integration of the two systems using Hierarchical Probabilistic Logic Program.

Fadja Arnaud Nguembang, Fraccaroli Michele, Bizzarri Alice, Mazzuchelli Giulia, Lamma Evelina


Covid-19, Decision Trees, Deep Learning, Hierarchical Probabilistic Logic Program, Severity