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In Physics in medicine and biology

In this work we present a framework for robust deep learning-based VMAT forward dose calculations for the 1.5T MR-Linac. A convolutional neural network was trained on the dose of individual multi-leaf-collimator VMAT segments and was used to predict the dose per segment for a set of MR-Linac-deliverable VMAT test plans. The training set consisted of prostate, rectal, lung and esophageal tumour data. All patients were previously treated in our clinic with VMAT on a conventional Linac. The clinical data were converted to an MR-Linac environment prior to training. During training time, gantry and collimator angles were randomized for each training sample, while the multi-leaf-collimator shapes were rigidly shifted to ensure robust learning. A Monte Carlo dose engine was used for the generation of the ground truth data at 1% statistical uncertainty per control point. For a set of 17 MR-Linac-deliverable VMAT test plans, generated on a research treatment planning system, our method predicted highly accurate dose distributions, reporting 99.7%±0.5% for the full plan prediction at the 3%/3 mm gamma criterion. Additional evaluation on previously unseen IMRT patients passed all clinical requirements resulting in 99.0%±0.6% for the 3%/3 mm analysis. The overall performance of our method makes it a promising plan validation solution for IMRT and VMAT workflows, robust to tumour anatomies and tissue density variations.

Tsekas Georgios, Bol Gijsbert H, Raaymakers Bas W


IMRT, MR-Linac, VMAT, deep learning, dose engine, online adaptive workflow