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ArXiv Preprint

Purpose: Tumor-associated vasculature differs from healthy blood vessels by its chaotic architecture and twistedness, which promotes treatment resistance. Measurable differences in these attributes may help stratify patients by likely benefit of systemic therapy (e.g. chemotherapy). In this work, we present a new category of radiomic biomarkers called quantitative tumor-associated vasculature (QuanTAV) features, and demonstrate their ability to predict response and survival across multiple cancers, imaging modalities, and treatment regimens. Experimental Design: We segmented tumor vessels and computed mathematical measurements of twistedness and organization on routine pre-treatment radiology (CT or contrast-enhanced MRI) from 558 patients, who received one of four first-line chemotherapy-based therapeutic intervention strategies for breast (n=371) or non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, n=187). Results: Across 4 chemotherapy-based treatment strategies, classifiers of QuanTAV measurements significantly (p<.05) predicted response in held out testing cohorts alone (AUC=0.63-0.71) and increased AUC by 0.06-0.12 when added to models of significant clinical variables alone. QuanTAV risk scores were prognostic of recurrence free survival in treatment cohorts chemotherapy for breast cancer (p=0.002, HR=1.25, 95% CI 1.08-1.44, C-index=.66) and chemoradiation for NSCLC (p=0.039, HR=1.28, 95% CI 1.01-1.62, C-index=0.66). Categorical QuanTAV risk groups were independently prognostic among all treatment groups, including NSCLC patients receiving chemotherapy (p=0.034, HR=2.29, 95% CI 1.07-4.94, C-index=0.62). Conclusions: Across these domains, we observed an association of vascular morphology on radiology with treatment outcome. Our findings suggest the potential of tumor-associated vasculature shape and structure as a prognostic and predictive biomarker for multiple cancers and treatments.

Nathaniel Braman, Prateek Prasanna, Kaustav Bera, Mehdi Alilou, Mohammadhadi Khorrami, Patrick Leo, Maryam Etesami, Manasa Vulchi, Paulette Turk, Amit Gupta, Prantesh Jain, Pingfu Fu, Nathan Pennell, Vamsidhar Velcheti, Jame Abraham, Donna Plecha, Anant Madabhushi