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In Frontiers in public health

Purpose : This study aimed to develop a deep learning model to generate a postoperative corneal axial curvature map of femtosecond laser arcuate keratotomy (FLAK) based on corneal tomography using a pix2pix conditional generative adversarial network (pix2pix cGAN) for surgical planning.

Methods : A total of 451 eyes of 318 nonconsecutive patients were subjected to FLAK for corneal astigmatism correction during cataract surgery. Paired or single anterior penetrating FLAKs were performed at an 8.0-mm optical zone with a depth of 90% using a femtosecond laser (LenSx laser, Alcon Laboratories, Inc.). Corneal tomography images were acquired from Oculus Pentacam HR (Optikgeräte GmbH, Wetzlar, Germany) before and 3 months after the surgery. The raw data required for analysis consisted of the anterior corneal curvature for a range of ± 3.5 mm around the corneal apex in 0.1-mm steps, which the pseudo-color corneal curvature map synthesized was based on. The deep learning model used was a pix2pix conditional generative adversarial network. The prediction accuracy of synthetic postoperative corneal astigmatism in zones of different diameters centered on the corneal apex was assessed using vector analysis. The synthetic postoperative corneal axial curvature maps were compared with the real postoperative corneal axial curvature maps using the structural similarity index measure (SSIM) and peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR).

Results : A total of 386 pairs of preoperative and postoperative corneal tomography data were included in the training set, whereas 65 preoperative data were retrospectively included in the test set. The correlation coefficient between synthetic and real postoperative astigmatism (difference vector) in the 3-mm zone was 0.89, and that between surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) was 0.93. The mean absolute errors of SIA for real and synthetic postoperative corneal axial curvature maps in the 1-, 3-, and 5-mm zone were 0.20 ± 0.25, 0.12 ± 0.17, and 0.09 ± 0.13 diopters, respectively. The average SSIM and PSNR of the 3-mm zone were 0.86 ± 0.04 and 18.24 ± 5.78, respectively.

Conclusion : Our results showed that the application of pix2pix cGAN can synthesize plausible postoperative corneal tomography for FLAK, showing the possibility of using GAN to predict corneal tomography, with the potential of applying artificial intelligence to construct surgical planning models.

Zhang Zhe, Cheng Nan, Liu Yunfang, Song Junyang, Liu Xinhua, Zhang Suhua, Zhang Guanghua


conditional generative adversarial network, corneal tomography, deep learning model, femtosecond laser arcuate keratotomy, surgical planning