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In Biomedical optics express

Separation of the physiological interferences and the neural hemodynamics has been a vitally important task in the realistic implementation of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Although many efforts have been devoted, the established solutions to this issue additionally rely on priori information on the interferences and activation responses, such as time-frequency characteristics and spatial patterns, etc., also hindering the realization of real-time. To tackle the adversity, we herein propose a novel priori-free scheme for real-time physiological interference suppression. This method combines the robustness of deep-leaning-based interference characterization and adaptivity of Kalman filtering: a long short-term memory (LSTM) network is trained with the time-courses of the absorption perturbation baseline for interferences profiling, and successively, a Kalman filtering process is applied with reference to the noise prediction for real-time activation extraction. The proposed method is validated using both simulated dynamic data and in-vivo experiments, showing the comprehensively improved performance and promisingly appended superiority achieved in the purely data-driven way.

Liu Dongyuan, Zhang Yao, Zhang Pengrui, Li Tieni, Li Zhiyong, Zhang Limin, Gao Feng