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In Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine

Background and aims : Understanding the age-related trend of risk in high blood pressure (BP) is important for preventing heart failure and cardiovascular diseases. But such a trend is still underexplored. This study aims to (a) depict the relationship of BP patterns with age, and (b) understand the trend of high BP prevalence over time in different age groups.

Materials and methods : Health check-up data with an observational period of 8 years (January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2018) was used as the data source. A total of 71,468 participants aged over 18 years old with complete information on weight, height, age, gender, glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, systolic (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were included for analysis. Generalized additive models were adopted to explore the relationship between the risk of high BP and age. Variance analysis was conducted by testing the trend of high BP prevalence in age groups over time.

Results : Risk of high SBP showed a continuous rise from age 35 to 79 years and a concurrent early increase in the risk of high DBP; after age 50-65 years, high DBP risk declined. The risk of SBP rises linearly with age for men, whereas increases non-linearly for women. In addition, a significant increasing trend of high SBP risk among middle-aged people was found during the past decade, men experienced a later but longer period of increase in high SBP than women.

Conclusion : The high SBP risk progresses more rapidly in the early lifetime in women, compared to the lifetime thereafter. Thresholds of increasing trend of SBP suggest a possible need for hypertension screening in China after the age of 40.

Cheng Weibin, Du Yumeng, Zhang Qingpeng, Wang Xin, He Chaocheng, He Jingjun, Jing Fengshi, Ren Hao, Guo Mengzhuo, Tian Junzhang, Xu Zhongzhi


South China, age-related trend, generalized additive models, heart failure, high blood pressure