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In Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine

Background : Cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) is a common complication following cardiac surgery. Early prediction of CSA-AKI is of great significance for improving patients' prognoses. The aim of this study is to systematically evaluate the predictive performance of machine learning models for CSA-AKI.

Methods : Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science were searched from inception to 18 March 2022. Risk of bias assessment was performed using PROBAST. Rsoftware (version 4.1.1) was used to calculate the accuracy and C-index of CSA-AKI prediction. The importance of CSA-AKI prediction was defined according to the frequency of related factors in the models.

Results : There were 38 eligible studies included, with a total of 255,943 patients and 60 machine learning models. The models mainly included Logistic Regression (n = 34), Neural Net (n = 6), Support Vector Machine (n = 4), Random Forest (n = 6), Extreme Gradient Boosting (n = 3), Decision Tree (n = 3), Gradient Boosted Machine (n = 1), COX regression (n = 1), κNeural Net (n = 1), and Naïve Bayes (n = 1), of which 51 models with intact recording in the training set and 17 in the validating set. Variables with the highest predicting frequency included Logistic Regression, Neural Net, Support Vector Machine, and Random Forest. The C-index and accuracy wer 0.76 (0.740, 0.780) and 0.72 (0.70, 0.73), respectively, in the training set, and 0.79 (0.75, 0.83) and 0.73 (0.71, 0.74), respectively, in the test set.

Conclusion : The machine learning-based model is effective for the early prediction of CSA-AKI. More machine learning methods based on noninvasive or minimally invasive predictive indicators are needed to improve the predictive performance and make accurate predictions of CSA-AKI. Logistic regression remains currently the most commonly applied model in CSA-AKI prediction, although it is not the one with the best performance. There are other models that would be more effective, such as NNET and XGBoost.

Systematic review registration :; review registration ID: CRD42022345259.

Song Zhe, Yang Zhenyu, Hou Ming, Shi Xuedong


acute kidney injury, cardiac surgery-associated, machine learning, meta-analysis, thoracic surgery