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In Open life sciences

Paraquat (PQ) is a nonselective herbicide that induces oxidative reactions and multiple-organ failure on exposure. Crocin, a carotenoid obtained from saffron, has demonstrated many therapeutic effects against neural conditions because of its antioxidant properties. In this study, 30 male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups to evaluate the protective effects of crocin and crocin-loaded niosomes (NC) against PQ in the brain. The levels of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), lipid peroxidation (LPO), total thiol groups (TTG), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activity were measured as the markers of redox status. Histopathological changes in the CA1 region of the hippocampus were evaluated by cresyl violet staining. Results indicated that both crocin and NC were able to attenuate the adverse effects of PQ at the histopathological level, which was following the changes in LPO (P < 0.0001), TAC (P < 0.01), and TTG (P < 0.05) level. The activity of CAT (P < 0.01) and SOD (P < 0.01) could be restored either by crocin or NC. Also, results indicated that nanoformulation of crocin in niosomes appears to be more promising. In conclusion, both crocin and NC showed favourable effects of PQ in the brain of rats, and were determined to be excellent agents to prevent acute toxicities of PQ. Furthermore, these two compounds can be known to provide neuroprotection.

Daneshvar Afsoon, Jouzdani Ali Fathi, Firozian Farzin, Asl Sara Soleimani, Mohammadi Mojdeh, Ranjbar Akram


brain, crocin-loaded niosomes, oxidative stress, paraquat, rats