The current paper assessed the time-frequency analysis interrelationship between CO2 emissions and financial development, economic growth, renewable energy use, structural change, and non-renewable energy use in Sweden. We utilized a quarterly dataset stretching from 1980-2019. In order to unlock these interrelationships, we leverage wavelet tools (wavelet-based Granger causality and wavelet coherence). The wavelet-based Granger causality (WGC) test accounts for the issue of multiple time scales in a time series analysis. Another uniqueness of the WGC lies in its resistance to distribution assumption and misspecification in a time series model. Additionally, the wavelet coherence estimator instantaneously evaluates correlation and causality among the interacting indicators in a model. The outcomes of the wavelet coherence exposed that renewable energy, financial development, economic growth, structural change, and trade openness enhance the environment's quality while non-renewable energy intensifies CO2. Moreover, the WGC shows that all the variables can predict each other. Based on these findings, policymakers in Sweden should focus more on improving public understanding of renewable energy and environmental preservation. We believe that Sweden's shift to service-sector-led growth will help to safeguard the environment.
Adebayo Tomiwa Sunday, Ibrahim Ridwan Lanre, Agyekum Ephraim Bonah, Zawbaa Hossam M, Kamel Salah
Economic growth, Financial development, Renewable energy consumption, Structural change, Wavelet tools