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In Environmental science and pollution research international

Rapid changes in land use and land cover (LULC) have ecological and environmental effects in metropolitan areas. Since the 1990s, Saudi Arabia's cities have undergone tremendous urban growth, causing urban heat islands, groundwater depletion, air pollution, loss of ecosystem services, etc. This study evaluates the variance and heterogeneity in land surface temperature (LST) because of LULC changes in Abha-Khamis Mushyet, Saudi Arabia, from 1990 to 2020. The research aims to determine the impact of urban biophysical parameters on the High-High (H-H) LST cluster using geospatial, statistical, and machine learning techniques. The support vector machine (SVM) was used to map LULC. The land surface temperature (LST) has been derived using the mono-window algorithm (MWA). The local indicator of spatial associations (LISA) model was implemented on the spatiotemporal LST maps to identify LST clusters. Also, the parallel coordinate plot (PCP) approach was employed to examine the relationship between LST clusters and urban biophysical variables as a proxy of LULC. LULC maps show that urban areas rose by > 330% between 1990 and 2020. Built-up areas had an 83.6% transitional probability between 1990 and 2020. In addition, vegetation and agricultural land have been transformed into built-up areas by 17.9% and 21.8% respectively between 1990 and 2020. Uneven LULC changes in terms of built-up areas lead to increased LST hotspots. High normalized difference built-up index (NDBI) was linked to LST hotspots but not normalized difference water index (NDWI) or normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). This research could help policymakers develop mitigation strategies for urban heat islands.

Bindajam Ahmed Ali, Mallick Javed, Talukdar Swapan, Shahfahad Shohan, Ahmed Ali A Rahman


Abha-Khamis Mushyet, LISA model, Mono-window algorithm, Parallel coordinate plot, Support vector machine