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In Psychiatry research ; h5-index 64.0

INTRODUCTION : During the COVID-19 pandemic various degrees of lockdown were applied by countries around the world. It is considered that such measures have an adverse effect on mental health but the relationship of measure intensity with the mental health effect has not been thoroughly studied. Here we report data from the larger COMET-G study pertaining to this question.

MATERIAL AND METHODS : During the COVID-19 pandemic, data were gathered with an online questionnaire from 55,589 participants from 40 countries (64.85% females aged 35.80 ± 13.61; 34.05% males aged 34.90±13.29 and 1.10% other aged 31.64±13.15). Anxiety was measured with the STAI, depression with the CES-D and suicidality with the RASS. Distress and probable depression were identified with the use of a previously developed cut-off and algorithm respectively.

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS : It included the calculation of Relative Risk (RR), Factorial ANOVA and Multiple backwards stepwise linear regression analysis RESULTS: Approximately two-thirds were currently living under significant restrictions due to lockdown. For both males and females the risk to develop clinical depression correlated significantly with each and every level of increasing lockdown degree (RR 1.72 and 1.90 respectively). The combined lockdown and psychiatric history increased RR to 6.88 The overall relationship of lockdown with severity of depression, though significant was small.

CONCLUSIONS : The current study is the first which reports an almost linear relationship between lockdown degree and effect in mental health. Our findings, support previous suggestions concerning the need for a proactive targeted intervention to protect mental health more specifically in vulnerable groups.

Fountoulakis Konstantinos N, Karakatsoulis Grigorios N, Abraham Seri, Adorjan Kristina, Ahmed Helal Uddin, Alarcón Renato D, Arai Kiyomi, Auwal Sani Salihu, Berk Michael, Bjedov Sarah, Bobes Julio, Bobes-Bascaran Teresa, Bourgin-Duchesnay Julie, Bredicean Cristina Ana, Bukelskis Laurynas, Burkadze Akaki, Abud Indira Indiana Cabrera, Castilla-Puentes Ruby, Cetkovich Marcelo, Colon-Rivera Hector, Corral Ricardo, Cortez-Vergara Carla, Crepin Piirika, De Berardis Domenico, Delgado Sergio Zamora, De Lucena David, De Sousa Avinash, Stefano Ramona Di, Dodd Seetal, Elek Livia Priyanka, Elissa Anna, Erdelyi-Hamza Berta, Erzin Gamze, Etchevers Martin J, Falkai Peter, Farcas Adriana, Fedotov Ilya, Filatova Viktoriia, Fountoulakis Nikolaos K, Frankova Iryna, Franza Francesco, Frias Pedro, Galako Tatiana, Garay Cristian J, Garcia-Álvarez Leticia, García-Portilla Maria Paz, Gonda Xenia, Gondek Tomasz M, González Daniela Morera, Gould Hilary, Grandinetti Paolo, Grau Arturo, Groudeva Violeta, Hagin Michal, Harada Takayuki, Hasan Tasdik M, Hashim Nurul Azreen, Hilbig Jan, Hossain Sahadat, Iakimova Rossitza, Ibrahim Mona, Iftene Felicia, Ignatenko Yulia, Irarrazaval Matias, Ismail Zaliha, Ismayilova Jamila, Jacobs Asaf, Jakovljević Miro, Jakšić Nenad, Javed Afzal, Kafali Helin Yilmaz, Karia Sagar, Kazakova Olga, Khalifa Doaa, Khaustova Olena, Koh Steve, Kopishinskaia Svetlana, Kosenko Korneliia, Koupidis Sotirios A, Kovacs Illes, Kulig Barbara, Lalljee Alisha, Liewig Justine, Majid Abdul, Malashonkova Evgeniia, Malik Khamelia, Malik Najma Iqbal, Mammadzada Gulay, Mandalia Bilvesh, Marazziti Donatella, Marčinko Darko, Martinez Stephanie, Matiekus Eimantas, Mejia Gabriela, Memon Roha Saeed, Martínez Xarah Elenne Meza, Mickevičiūtė Dalia, Milev Roumen, Mohammed Muftau, Molina-López Alejandro, Morozov Petr, Muhammad Nuru Suleiman, Mustač Filip, Naor Mika S, Nassieb Amira, Navickas Alvydas, Okasha Tarek, Pandova Milena, Panfil Anca-Livia, Panteleeva Liliya, Papava Ion, Patsali Mikaella E, Pavlichenko Alexey, Pejuskovic Bojana, Da Costa Mariana Pinto, Popkov Mikhail, Popovic Dina, Raduan Nor Jannah Nasution, Ramírez Francisca Vargas, Rancans Elmars, Razali Salmi, Rebok Federico, Rewekant Anna, Flores Elena Ninoska Reyes, Rivera-Encinas María Teresa, Saiz Pilar, de Carmona Manuel Sánchez, Martínez David Saucedo, Saw Jo Anne, Saygili Görkem, Schneidereit Patricia, Shah Bhumika, Shirasaka Tomohiro, Silagadze Ketevan, Sitanggang Satti, Skugarevsky Oleg, Spikina Anna, Mahalingappa Sridevi Sira, Stoyanova Maria, Szczegielniak Anna, Tamasan Simona Claudia, Tavormina Giuseppe, Tavormina Maurilio Giuseppe Maria, Theodorakis Pavlos N, Tohen Mauricio, Tsapakis Eva Maria, Tukhvatullina Dina, Ullah Irfan, Vaidya Ratnaraj, Vega-Dienstmaier Johann M, Vrublevska Jelena, Vukovic Olivera, Vysotska Olga, Widiasih Natalia, Yashikhina Anna, Prezerakos Panagiotis E, Smirnova Daria

2022-Jul-01

COVID-19, Depression, Mental health, lockdown, anxiety, mental health history, Suicidality