COVID-19 has spread rapidly all over the world and has infected more than 200 countries and regions. Early screening of suspected infected patients is essential for preventing and combating COVID-19. Computed Tomography (CT) is a fast and efficient tool which can quickly provide chest scan results. To reduce the burden on doctors of reading CTs, in this article, a high precision diagnosis algorithm of COVID-19 from chest CTs is designed for intelligent diagnosis. A semi-supervised learning approach is developed to solve the problem when only small amount of labelled data is available. While following the MixMatch rules to conduct sophisticated data augmentation, we introduce a model training technique to reduce the risk of model over-fitting. At the same time, a new data enhancement method is proposed to modify the regularization term in MixMatch. To further enhance the generalization of the model, a convolutional neural network based on an attention mechanism is then developed that enables to extract multi-scale features on CT scans. The proposed algorithm is evaluated on an independent CT dataset of the chest from COVID-19 and achieves the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) value of 0.932, accuracy of 90.1%, sensitivity of 91.4%, specificity of 88.9%, and F1-score of 89.9%. The results show that the proposed algorithm can accurately diagnose whether a chest CT belongs to a positive or negative indication of COVID-19, and can help doctors to diagnose rapidly in the early stages of a COVID-19 outbreak.
Zhang Yong, Su Li, Liu Zhenxing, Tan Wei, Jiang Yinuo, Cheng Cheng
Attention mechanisms, COVID-19, Computed tomography, Deep learning, Semi-supervised learning