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In The Journal of pathology

Lung diseases carry a significant burden of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The advent of digital pathology (DP) and an increase in computational power have led to the development of artificial intelligence (AI) based tools that can assist pathologists and pulmonologists in improving clinical workflow and patient management. While previous works have explored the advances in computational approaches for breast, prostate, and head and neck cancers, there has been a growing interest in applying these technologies to lung diseases as well. The application of AI tools on radiology images for better characterization of indeterminate lung nodules, fibrotic lung disease, and lung cancer risk stratification has been well documented. In this article, we discuss methodologies used to build AI tools in lung digital pathology, describing the various hand-crafted and deep learning-based unsupervised feature approaches. Next, we review AI tools across a wide spectrum of lung diseases including cancer, tuberculosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and COVID-19. We discuss the utility of novel imaging biomarkers for different types of clinical problems including quantification of biomarkers like PD-L1, lung disease diagnosis, risk stratification, and prediction of response to treatments such as immune checkpoint inhibitors. We also look briefly at some emerging applications of AI tools in lung digital pathology such as multimodal data analysis, 3D pathology, and transplant rejection. Lastly, we discuss the future of DP-based AI tools, describing the challenges with regulatory approval, developing reimbursement models, planning clinical deployment, and addressing AI biases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Viswanathan Vidya Sankar, Toro Paula, Corredor Germán, Mukhopadhyay Sanjay, Madabhushi Anant


Artificial Intelligence, Computational Pathology, Digital Pathology, Lung Diseases, Machine Learning