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In Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine ; h5-index 46.0

OBJECTIVES : The development and use of artificial intelligence (AI) methodologies, especially machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL), have been considerably fostered during the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Several models and algorithms have been developed and applied for both identifying COVID-19 cases and for assessing and predicting the risk of developing unfavourable outcomes. Our aim was to summarize how AI is being currently applied to COVID-19.

METHODS : We conducted a PubMed search using as query MeSH major terms "Artificial Intelligence" AND "COVID-19", searching for articles published until December 31, 2021, which explored the possible role of AI in COVID-19. The dataset origin (internal dataset or public datasets available online) and data used for training and testing the proposed ML/DL model(s) were retrieved.

RESULTS : Our analysis finally identified 292 articles in PubMed. These studies displayed large heterogeneity in terms of imaging test, laboratory parameters and clinical-demographic data included. Most models were based on imaging data, in particular CT scans or chest X-rays images. C-Reactive protein, leukocyte count, creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase, lymphocytes and platelets counts were found to be the laboratory biomarkers most frequently included in COVID-19 related AI models.

CONCLUSIONS : The lion's share of AI applied to COVID-19 seems to be played by diagnostic imaging. However, AI in laboratory medicine is also gaining momentum, especially with digital tools characterized by low cost and widespread applicability.

Negrini Davide, Danese Elisa, Henry Brandon M, Lippi Giuseppe, Montagnana Martina


COVID-19, artificial intelligence, deep learning, digital health, machine learning