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In Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)

The data FAIR Guiding Principles state that all data should be Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable. Ontology is critical to data integration, sharing, and analysis. Given thousands of ontologies have been developed in the era of artificial intelligence, it is critical to have interoperable ontologies to support standardized data and knowledge presentation and reasoning. For interoperable ontology development, the eXtensible ontology development (XOD) strategy offers four principles including ontology term reuse, semantic alignment, ontology design pattern usage, and community extensibility. Many software programs are available to help implement these principles. As a demonstration, the XOD strategy is applied to developing the interoperable Coronavirus Infectious Disease Ontology (CIDO). Various applications of interoperable ontologies, such as COVID-19 and kidney precision medicine research, are also introduced in this chapter.

He Yongqun


COVID-19, Interoperable ontology, Kidney, Precision medicine, eXtensible ontology development