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In Multimedia tools and applications

Since early 2020, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread widely around the world. COVID-19 infects the lungs, leading to breathing difficulties. Early detection of COVID-19 is important for the prevention and treatment of pandemic. Numerous sources of medical images (e.g., Chest X-Rays (CXR), Computed Tomography (CT), and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)) are regarded as a desirable technique for diagnosing COVID-19 cases. Medical images of coronavirus patients show that the lungs are filled with sticky mucus that prevents them from inhaling. Today, Artificial Intelligence (AI) based algorithms have made a significant shift in the computer aided diagnosis due to their effective feature extraction capabilities. In this survey, a complete and systematic review of the application of Machine Learning (ML) methods for the detection of COVID-19 is presented, focused on works that used medical images. We aimed to evaluate various ML-based techniques in detecting COVID-19 using medical imaging. A total of 26 papers were extracted from ACM, ScienceDirect, Springerlink, Tech Science Press, and IEEExplore. Five different ML categories to review these mechanisms are considered, which are supervised learning-based, deep learning-based, active learning-based, transfer learning-based, and evolutionary learning-based mechanisms. A number of articles are investigated in each group. Also, some directions for further research are discussed to improve the detection of COVID-19 using ML techniques in the future. In most articles, deep learning is used as the ML method. Also, most of the researchers used CXR images to diagnose COVID-19. Most articles reported accuracy of the models to evaluate model performance. The accuracy of the studied models ranged from 0.84 to 0.99. The studies demonstrated the current status of AI techniques in using AI potentials in the fight against COVID-19.

Rahmani Amir Masoud, Azhir Elham, Naserbakht Morteza, Mohammadi Mokhtar, Aldalwie Adil Hussein Mohammed, Majeed Mohammed Kamal, Taher Karim Sarkhel H, Hosseinzadeh Mehdi


Artificial intelligence, COVID-19, Literature review, Machine learning, Medical image