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In Journal of healthcare engineering

Individuals with pre-existing diabetes seem to be vulnerable to the COVID-19 due to changes in blood sugar levels and diabetes complications. As observed globally, around 20-50% of individuals affected by coronavirus had diabetes. However, there is no recent finding that diabetic patients are more prone to contract COVID-19 than nondiabetic patients. However, a few recent findings have observed that it could be at least twice as likely to die from complications of diabetes. Considering the multifold mortality rate of COVID-19 in diabetic patients, this study proposes a COVID-19 risk prediction model for diabetic patients using a fuzzy inference system and machine learning approaches. This study aimed to estimate the risk level of COVID-19 in diabetic patients without a medical practitioner's advice for timely action and overcoming the multifold mortality rate of COVID-19 in diabetic patients. The proposed model takes eight input parameters, which were found as the most influential symptoms in diabetic patients. With the help of the various state-of-the-art machine learning techniques, fifteen models were built over the rule base. CatBoost classifier gives the best accuracy, recall, precision, F1 score, and kappa score. After hyper-parameter optimization, CatBoost classifier showed 76% accuracy and improvements in the recall, precision, F1 score, and kappa score, followed by logistic regression and XGBoost with 75.1% and 74.7% accuracy. Stratified k-fold cross-validation is used for validation purposes.

Aggarwal Alok, Chakradar Madam, Bhatia Manpreet Singh, Kumar Manoj, Stephan Thompson, Gupta Sachin Kumar, Alsamhi S H, Al-Dois Hatem