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In bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology

Phage Immunoprecipitation-Sequencing (PhIP-Seq) allows for unbiased, proteome-wide autoantibody discovery across a variety of disease settings, with identification of disease-specific autoantigens providing new insight into previously poorly understood forms of immune dysregulation. Despite several successful implementations of PhIP-Seq for autoantigen discovery, including our previous work (Vazquez et al. 2020), current protocols are inherently difficult to scale to accommodate large cohorts of cases and importantly, healthy controls. Here, we develop and validate a high throughput extension of PhIP-seq in various etiologies of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, including APS1, IPEX, RAG1/2 deficiency, Kawasaki Disease (KD), Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), and finally, mild and severe forms of COVID19. We demonstrate that these scaled datasets enable machine-learning approaches that result in robust prediction of disease status, as well as the ability to detect both known and novel autoantigens, such as PDYN in APS1 patients, and intestinally expressed proteins BEST4 and BTNL8 in IPEX patients. Remarkably, BEST4 antibodies were also found in 2 patients with RAG1/2 deficiency, one of whom had very early onset IBD. Scaled PhIP-Seq examination of both MIS-C and KD demonstrated rare, overlapping antigens, including CGNL1, as well as several strongly enriched putative pneumonia-associated antigens in severe COVID19, including the endosomal protein EEA1. Together, scaled PhIP-Seq provides a valuable tool for broadly assessing both rare and common autoantigen overlap between autoimmune diseases of varying origins and etiologies.

Vazquez Sara E, Mann Sabrina A, Bodansky Aaron, Kung Andrew F, Quandt Zoe, Ferré Elise M N, Landegren Nils, Eriksson Daniel, Bastard Paul, Zhang Shen-Ying, Liu Jamin, Mitchell Anthea, Mandel-Brehm Caleigh, Miao Brenda, Sowa Gavin, Zorn Kelsey, Chan Alice Y, Shimizu Chisato, Tremoulet Adriana, Lynch Kara, Wilson Michael R, Kampe Olle, Dobbs Kerry, Delmonte Ottavia M, Notarangelo Luigi D, Burns Jane C, Casanova Jean-Laurent, Lionakis Michail S, Torgerson Troy R, Anderson Mark S, DeRisi Joseph L