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In Journal of signal processing systems

The SARS-CoV-2 virus causes a respiratory disease in humans, known as COVID-19. The confirmatory diagnostic of this disease occurs through the real-time reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction test (RT-qPCR). However, the period of obtaining the results limits the application of the mass test. Thus, chest X-ray computed tomography (CT) images are analyzed to help diagnose the disease. However, during an outbreak of a disease that causes respiratory problems, radiologists may be overwhelmed with analyzing medical images. In the literature, some studies used feature extraction techniques based on CNNs, with classification models to identify COVID-19 and non-COVID-19. This work compare the performance of applying pre-trained CNNs in conjunction with classification methods based on machine learning algorithms. The main objective is to analyze the impact of the features extracted by CNNs, in the construction of models to classify COVID-19 and non-COVID-19. A SARS-CoV-2 CT data-set is used in experimental tests. The CNNs implemented are visual geometry group (VGG-16 and VGG-19), inception V3 (IV3), and EfficientNet-B0 (EB0). The classification methods were k-nearest neighbor (KNN), support vector machine (SVM), and explainable deep neural networks (xDNN). In the experiments, the best results were obtained by the EfficientNet model used to extract data and the SVM with an RBF kernel. This approach achieved an average performance of 0.9856 in the precision macro, 0.9853 in the sensitivity macro, 0.9853 in the specificity macro, and 0.9853 in the F1 score macro.

Teodoro Arthur A M, Silva Douglas H, Saadi Muhammad, Okey Ogobuchi D, Rosa Renata L, Otaibi Sattam Al, Rodríguez Demóstenes Z


COVID-19; non-COVID-19, Computed tomography images, Convolutional neural networks, Machine learning, Transfer learning