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In Inflammation research : official journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et al.]

BACKGROUND : The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic continues to spread sporadically in the Unites States and worldwide. The severity and mortality excessively affected the frail elderly with co-existing medical diseases. There is growing evidence that cross-talk between the gut microbiome, Vitamin D and RAS/ACE2 system is essential for a balanced functioning of the elderly immune system and in regulating inflammation. In this review, we hypothesize that the state of gut microbiome, prior to infection determines the outcome associated with COVID-19 sepsis and may also be a critical factor in success to vaccination.

METHODS : Articles from PubMed/Medline searches were reviewed using a combination of terms "SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, Inflammaging, Immune-senescence, Gut microbiome, Vitamin D, RAS/ACE2, Vaccination".

CONCLUSION : Evidence indicates a complex association between gut microbiota, ACE-2 expression and Vitamin D in COVID-19 severity. Status of gut microbiome is highly predictive of the blood molecular signatures and inflammatory markers and host responses to infection. Vitamin D has immunomodulatory function in innate and adaptive immune responses to viral infection. Anti-inflammatory functions of Vit D include regulation of gut microbiome and maintaining microbial diversity. It promotes growth of gut-friendly commensal strains of Bifida and Fermicutus species. In addition, Vitamin D is a negative regulator for expression of renin and interacts with the RAS/ ACE/ACE-2 signaling axis. Collectively, this triad may be the critical, link in determination of outcomes in SARS-CoV-2 infection. The presented data are empirical and informative. Further research using advanced systems biology techniques and artificial intelligence-assisted integration could assist with correlation of the gut microbiome with sepsis and vaccine responses. Modulating these factors may impact in guiding the success of vaccines and clinical outcomes in COVID-19 infections.

Shenoy Santosh


ACE2, COVID-19 sepsis, Gut microbiome, Immune-senescence, Inflammaging, Vaccination, Vitamin D