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In Computational and mathematical methods in medicine

In March 2020, the World Health Organization announced the COVID-19 pandemic, its dangers, and its rapid spread throughout the world. In March 2021, the second wave of the pandemic began with a new strain of COVID-19, which was more dangerous for some countries, including India, recording 400,000 new cases daily and more than 4,000 deaths per day. This pandemic has overloaded the medical sector, especially radiology. Deep-learning techniques have been used to reduce the burden on hospitals and assist physicians for accurate diagnoses. In our study, two models of deep learning, ResNet-50 and AlexNet, were introduced to diagnose X-ray datasets collected from many sources. Each network diagnosed a multiclass (four classes) and a two-class dataset. The images were processed to remove noise, and a data augmentation technique was applied to the minority classes to create a balance between the classes. The features extracted by convolutional neural network (CNN) models were combined with traditional Gray-level Cooccurrence Matrix (GLCM) and Local Binary Pattern (LBP) algorithms in a 1-D vector of each image, which produced more representative features for each disease. Network parameters were tuned for optimum performance. The ResNet-50 network reached accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 95%, 94.5%, 98%, and 97.10%, respectively, with the multiclasses (COVID-19, viral pneumonia, lung opacity, and normal), while it reached accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and AUC of 99%, 98%, 98%, and 97.51%, respectively, with the binary classes (COVID-19 and normal).

Senan Ebrahim Mohammed, Alzahrani Ali, Alzahrani Mohammed Y, Alsharif Nizar, Aldhyani Theyazn H H

2021