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In Patterns (New York, N.Y.)

Deep Learning (DL) models typically require large-scale, balanced training data to be robust, generalizable, and effective in the context of healthcare. This has been a major issue for developing DL models for the coronavirus-disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic where data are highly class imbalanced. Conventional approaches in DL use cross-entropy loss (CEL) which often suffers from poor margin classification. We show that contrastive loss (CL) improves the performance of CEL especially in imbalanced electronic health records (EHR) data for COVID-19 analyses. We use a diverse EHR data set to predict three outcomes: mortality, intubation, and intensive care unit (ICU) transfer in hospitalized COVID-19 patients over multiple time windows. To compare the performance of CEL and CL, models are tested on the full data set and a restricted data set. CL models consistently outperform CEL models with differences ranging from 0.04 to 0.15 for AUPRC and 0.05 to 0.1 for AUROC.

Wanyan Tingyi, Honarvar Hossein, Jaladanki Suraj K, Zang Chengxi, Naik Nidhi, Somani Sulaiman, De Freitas Jessica K, Paranjpe Ishan, Vaid Akhil, Zhang Jing, Miotto Riccardo, Wang Zhangyang, Nadkarni Girish N, Zitnik Marinka, Azad Ariful, Wang Fei, Ding Ying, Glicksberg Benjamin S