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In Medical image analysis

Surgical workflow recognition is a fundamental task in computer-assisted surgery and a key component of various applications in operating rooms. Existing deep learning models have achieved promising results for surgical workflow recognition, heavily relying on a large amount of annotated videos. However, obtaining annotation is time-consuming and requires the domain knowledge of surgeons. In this paper, we propose a novel two-stage Semi-Supervised Learning method for label-efficient Surgical workflow recognition, named as SurgSSL. Our proposed SurgSSL progressively leverages the inherent knowledge held in the unlabeled data to a larger extent: from implicit unlabeled data excavation via motion knowledge excavation, to explicit unlabeled data excavation via pre-knowledge pseudo labeling. Specifically, we first propose a novel intra-sequence Visual and Temporal Dynamic Consistency (VTDC) scheme for implicit excavation. It enforces prediction consistency of the same data under perturbations in both spatial and temporal spaces, encouraging model to capture rich motion knowledge. We further perform explicit excavation by optimizing the model towards our pre-knowledge pseudo label. It is naturally generated by the VTDC regularized model with prior knowledge of unlabeled data encoded, and demonstrates superior reliability for model supervision compared with the label generated by existing methods. We extensively evaluate our method on two public surgical datasets of Cholec80 and M2CAI challenge dataset. Our method surpasses the state-of-the-art semi-supervised methods by a large margin, e.g., improving 10.5% Accuracy under the severest annotation regime of M2CAI dataset. Using only 50% labeled videos on Cholec80, our approach achieves competitive performance compared with full-data training method.

Shi Xueying, Jin Yueming, Dou Qi, Heng Pheng-Ann


Pseudo label generation, Semi-supervised learning, Surgical workflow recognition, Video representation learning, Visual temporal dynamic consistency