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In Sleep & breathing = Schlaf & Atmung

BACKGROUND : Because of problems with the recording and analysis of the EEG signal, automatic sleep staging using cardiorespiratory signals has been employed as an alternative. This study reports on certain critical points which hold considerable promise for the improvement of the results of the automatic sleep staging using cardiorespiratory signals.

METHODS : A systematic review.

RESULTS : The review and analysis of the literature in this area revealed four outstanding points: (1) the feature extraction epoch length, denoting that the standard 30-s segments of cardiorespiratory signals do not carry enough information for automatic sleep staging and that a 4.5-min length segment centering on each 30-s segment is proper for staging, (2) the time delay between the EEG signal extracted from the central nervous system activity and the cardiorespiratory signals extracted from the autonomic nervous system activity should be considered in the automatic sleep staging using cardiorespiratory signals, (3) the information in the morphology of ECG signals can contribute to the improvement of sleep staging, and (4) applying convolutional neural network (CNN) and long short-term memory network (LSTM) deep structures simultaneously to a large PSG recording database can lead to more reliable automatic sleep staging results.

CONCLUSIONS : Considering the above-mentioned points simultaneously can improve automatic sleep staging by cardiorespiratory signals. It is hoped that by considering the points, staging sleep automatically using cardiorespiratory signals, which does not have problems with the recording and analysis of EEG signals, yields results acceptably close to the results of automatic sleep staging by EEG signals.

Ebrahimi Farideh, Alizadeh Iman


Automatic sleep staging, Cardiorespiratory signals, Deep learning, ECG morphology