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In Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine

Background: Patients with acute type A aortic dissection are usually transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU) after surgery. Prolonged ICU length of stay (ICU-LOS) is associated with higher level of care and higher mortality. We aimed to develop and validate machine learning models for predicting ICU-LOS after acute type A aortic dissection surgery. Methods: A total of 353 patients with acute type A aortic dissection transferred to ICU after surgery from September 2016 to August 2019 were included. The patients were randomly divided into the training dataset (70%) and the validation dataset (30%). Eighty-four preoperative and intraoperative factors were collected for each patient. ICU-LOS was divided into four intervals (<4, 4-7, 7-10, and >10 days) according to interquartile range. Kendall correlation coefficient was used to identify factors associated with ICU-LOS. Five classic classifiers, Naive Bayes, Linear Regression, Decision Tree, Random Forest, and Gradient Boosting Decision Tree, were developed to predict ICU-LOS. Area under the curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the models' performance. Results: The mean age of patients was 51.0 ± 10.9 years and 307 (87.0%) were males. Twelve predictors were identified for ICU-LOS, namely, D-dimer, serum creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase, cardiopulmonary bypass time, fasting blood glucose, white blood cell count, surgical time, aortic cross-clamping time, with Marfan's syndrome, without Marfan's syndrome, without aortic aneurysm, and platelet count. Random Forest yielded the highest performance, with an AUC of 0.991 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.978-1.000) and 0.837 (95% CI: 0.766-0.908) in the training and validation datasets, respectively. Conclusions: Machine learning has the potential to predict ICU-LOS for acute type A aortic dissection. This tool could improve the management of ICU resources and patient-throughput planning, and allow better communication with patients and their families.

Chen Qiuying, Zhang Bin, Yang Jue, Mo Xiaokai, Zhang Lu, Li Minmin, Chen Zhuozhi, Fang Jin, Wang Fei, Huang Wenhui, Fan Ruixin, Zhang Shuixing

2021

acute type A aortic dissection, intensive care unit, length of stay, machine learning, surgery