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In Scientific reports ; h5-index 158.0

This work develops a robust classifier for a COVID-19 pre-screening model from crowdsourced cough sound data. The crowdsourced cough recordings contain a variable number of coughs, with some input sound files more informative than the others. Accurate detection of COVID-19 from the sound datasets requires overcoming two main challenges (i) the variable number of coughs in each recording and (ii) the low number of COVID-positive cases compared to healthy coughs in the data. We use two open datasets of crowdsourced cough recordings and segment each cough recording into non-overlapping coughs. The segmentation enriches the original data without oversampling by splitting the original cough sound files into non-overlapping segments. Splitting the sound files enables us to increase the samples of the minority class (COVID-19) without changing the feature distribution of the COVID-19 samples resulted from applying oversampling techniques. Each cough sound segment is transformed into six image representations for further analyses. We conduct extensive experiments with shallow machine learning, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), and pre-trained CNN models. The results of our models were compared to other recently published papers that apply machine learning to cough sound data for COVID-19 detection. Our method demonstrated a high performance using an ensemble model on the testing dataset with area under receiver operating characteristics curve = 0.77, precision = 0.80, recall = 0.71, F1 measure = 0.75, and Kappa = 0.53. The results show an improvement in the prediction accuracy of our COVID-19 pre-screening model compared to the other models.

Mohammed Emad A, Keyhani Mohammad, Sanati-Nezhad Amir, Hejazi S Hossein, Far Behrouz H