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In Current problems in diagnostic radiology

PURPOSE : Aim of this study was to evaluate a fully automated deep learning network named Efficient Neural Network (ENet) for segmentation of prostate gland with median lobe enlargement compared to manual segmentation.

MATERIALS AND METHODS : One-hundred-three patients with median lobe enlargement on prostate MRI were retrospectively included. Ellipsoid formula, manual segmentation and automatic segmentation were used for prostate volume estimation using T2 weighted MRI images. ENet was used for automatic segmentation; it is a deep learning network developed for fast inference and high accuracy in augmented reality and automotive scenarios. Student t-test was performed to compare prostate volumes obtained with ellipsoid formula, manual segmentation, and automated segmentation. To provide an evaluation of the similarity or difference to manual segmentation, sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV), dice similarity coefficient (DSC), volume overlap error (VOE), and volumetric difference (VD) were calculated.

RESULTS : Differences between prostate volume obtained from ellipsoid formula versus manual segmentation and versus automatic segmentation were statistically significant (P < 0.049318 and P < 0.034305, respectively), while no statistical difference was found between volume obtained from manual versus automatic segmentation (P = 0.438045). The performance of ENet versus manual segmentations was good providing a sensitivity of 93.51%, a PPV of 87.93%, a DSC of 90.38%, a VOE of 17.32% and a VD of 6.85%.

CONCLUSION : The presence of median lobe enlargement may lead to MRI volume overestimation when using the ellipsoid formula so that a segmentation method is recommended. ENet volume estimation showed great accuracy in evaluation of prostate volume similar to that of manual segmentation.

Salvaggio Giuseppe, Comelli Albert, Portoghese Marzia, Cutaia Giuseppe, Cannella Roberto, Vernuccio Federica, Stefano Alessandro, Dispensa Nino, La Tona Giuseppe, Salvaggio Leonardo, Calamia Mauro, Gagliardo Cesare, Lagalla Roberto, Midiri Massimo