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In Journal of the Endocrine Society

Context : Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) characterized by acute weakness, hypokalemia, and hyperthyroidism is a medical emergency with a great challenge in early diagnosis since most TPP patients do not have overt symptoms.

Objective : This work aims to assess artificial intelligence (AI)-assisted electrocardiography (ECG) combined with routine laboratory data in the early diagnosis of TPP.

Methods : A deep learning model (DLM) based on ECG12Net, an 82-layer convolutional neural network, was constructed to detect hypokalemia and hyperthyroidism. The development cohort consisted of 39 ECGs from patients with TPP and 502 ECGs of hypokalemic controls; the validation cohort consisted of 11 ECGs of TPP patients and 36 ECGs of non-TPP individuals with weakness. The AI-ECG-based TPP diagnostic process was then consecutively evaluated in 22 male patients with TTP-like features.

Results : In the validation cohort, the DLM-based ECG system detected all cases of hypokalemia in TPP patients with a mean absolute error of 0.26 mEq/L and diagnosed TPP with an area under curve (AUC) of approximately 80%, surpassing the best standard ECG parameter (AUC = 0.7285 for the QR interval). Combining the AI predictions with the estimated glomerular filtration rate and serum chloride boosted the diagnostic accuracy of the algorithm to AUC 0.986. In the prospective study, the integrated AI and routine laboratory diagnostic system had a PPV of 100% and F-measure of 87.5%.

Conclusion : An AI-ECG system reliably identifies hypokalemia in patients with paralysis, and integration with routine blood chemistries provides valuable decision support for the early diagnosis of TPP.

Lin Chin, Lin Chin-Sheng, Lee Ding-Jie, Lee Chia-Cheng, Chen Sy-Jou, Tsai Shi-Hung, Kuo Feng-Chih, Chau Tom, Lin Shih-Hua


artificial intelligence, deep learning, electrocardiogram, hypokalemia, thyrotoxic periodic paralysis