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In Computer methods and programs in biomedicine

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES : Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is one of the most aggressive human malignant tumors and is becoming one of the main factors of death and disability globally. Specifically, 60% to 70% of CCA patients were diagnosed with local invasion or distant metastasis and lost the chance of radical operation. The overall median survival time was less than 12 months. As a non-invasive diagnostic technology, medical imaging consisting of computed tomography (CT) imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound (US) imaging, is the most effectively and commonly used method to detect CCA. The computer auxiliary diagnosis (CAD) system based on medical imaging is helpful for rapid diagnosis and provides credible "second opinion" for specialists. The purpose of this review is to categorize and review the CAD technique of detecting CCA based on medical imaging.

METHODS : This work applies a four-level screening process to choose suitable publications. 125 research papers published in different academic research databases were selected and analyzed according to specific criteria. From the five steps of medical image acquisition, processing, analysis, understanding and verification of CAD combined with artificial intelligence algorithms, we obtain the most advanced insights related to CCA detection.

RESULTS : This work provides a comprehensive analysis and comparison analysis of the current CAD systems of detecting CCA. After careful investigation, we find that the main detection methods are traditional machine learning method and deep learning method. For the detection, the most commonly used method is semi-automatic segmentation algorithm combined with support vector machine classifier method, combination of which has good detection performance. The end-to-end training mode makes deep learning method more and more popular in CAD systems. However, due to the limited medical training data, the accuracy of deep learning method is unsatisfactory.

CONCLUSIONS : Based on analysis of artificial intelligence methods applied in CCA, this work is expected to be truly applied in clinical practice in the future to improve the level of clinical diagnosis and treatment of it. This work concludes by providing a prediction of future trends, which will be of great significance for researchers in the medical imaging of CCA and artificial intelligence.

Wang Shiyu, Liu Xiang, Zhao Jingwen, Liu Yiwen, Liu Shuhong, Liu Yisi, Zhao Jingmin


Cholangiocarcinoma, Computer auxiliary diagnosis, Convolutional neural network, Feature extraction and selection, Machine learning, Medical image processing