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In Patterns (New York, N.Y.)

Free-text clinical notes in electronic health records are more difficult for data mining while the structured diagnostic codes can be missing or erroneous. To improve the quality of diagnostic codes, this work extracts diagnostic codes from free-text notes: five old and new word vectorization methods were used to vectorize Stanford progress notes and predict eight ICD-10 codes of common cardiovascular diseases with logistic regression. The models showed good performance, with TF-IDF as the best vectorization model showing the highest AUROC (0.9499-0.9915) and AUPRC (0.2956-0.8072). The models also showed transferability when tested on MIMIC-III data with AUROC from 0.7952 to 0.9790 and AUPRC from 0.2353 to 0.8084. Model interpretability was shown by the important words with clinical meanings matching each disease. This study shows the feasibility of accurately extracting structured diagnostic codes, imputing missing codes, and correcting erroneous codes from free-text clinical notes for information retrieval and downstream machine-learning applications.

Zhan Xianghao, Humbert-Droz Marie, Mukherjee Pritam, Gevaert Olivier


ICD-10 codes, cardiovascular disease, clinical notes, interpretability, natural language processing