The prognosis of patients with lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), especially early-stage LUAD, is dependent on clinicopathological features. However, its predictive utility is limited. In this study, we developed and trained a DeepRePath model based on a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) using multi-scale pathology images to predict the prognosis of patients with early-stage LUAD. DeepRePath was pre-trained with 1067 hematoxylin and eosin-stained whole-slide images of LUAD from the Cancer Genome Atlas. DeepRePath was further trained and validated using two separate CNNs and multi-scale pathology images of 393 resected lung cancer specimens from patients with stage I and II LUAD. Of the 393 patients, 95 patients developed recurrence after surgical resection. The DeepRePath model showed average area under the curve (AUC) scores of 0.77 and 0.76 in cohort I and cohort II (external validation set), respectively. Owing to low performance, DeepRePath cannot be used as an automated tool in a clinical setting. When gradient-weighted class activation mapping was used, DeepRePath indicated the association between atypical nuclei, discohesive tumor cells, and tumor necrosis in pathology images showing recurrence. Despite the limitations associated with a relatively small number of patients, the DeepRePath model based on CNNs with transfer learning could predict recurrence after the curative resection of early-stage LUAD using multi-scale pathology images.
Shim Won Sang, Yim Kwangil, Kim Tae-Jung, Sung Yeoun Eun, Lee Gyeongyun, Hong Ji Hyung, Chun Sang Hoon, Kim Seoree, An Ho Jung, Na Sae Jung, Kim Jae Jun, Moon Mi Hyoung, Moon Seok Whan, Park Sungsoo, Hong Soon Auck, Ko Yoon Ho
deep learning, lung adenocarcinoma, pathology image, prognosis