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In NeuroImage ; h5-index 117.0

Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and R2* mapping are MRI post-processing methods that quantify tissue magnetic susceptibility and transverse relaxation rate distributions. However, QSM and R2* acquisitions are relatively slow, even with parallel imaging. Incoherent undersampling and compressed sensing reconstruction techniques have been used to accelerate traditional magnitude-based MRI acquisitions; however, most do not recover the full phase signal, as required by QSM, due to its non-convex nature. In this study, a learning-based Deep Complex Residual Network (DCRNet) is proposed to recover both the magnitude and phase images from incoherently undersampled data, enabling high acceleration of QSM and R2* acquisition. Magnitude, phase, R2*, and QSM results from DCRNet were compared with two iterative and one deep learning methods on retrospectively undersampled acquisitions from six healthy volunteers, one intracranial hemorrhage and one multiple sclerosis patients, as well as one prospectively undersampled healthy subject using a 7T scanner. Peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), structural similarity (SSIM), root-mean-squared error (RMSE), and region-of-interest susceptibility and R2* measurements are reported for numerical comparisons. The proposed DCRNet method substantially reduced artifacts and blurring compared to the other methods and resulted in the highest PSNR, SSIM, and RMSE on the magnitude, R2*, local field, and susceptibility maps. Compared to two iterative and one deep learning methods, the DCRNet method demonstrated a 3.2% to 9.1% accuracy improvement in deep grey matter susceptibility when accelerated by a factor of four. The DCRNet also dramatically shortened the reconstruction time of single 2D brain images from 36-140 seconds using conventional approaches to only 15-70 milliseconds.

Gao Yang, Cloos Martijn, Liu Feng, Crozier Stuart, Pike G Bruce, Sun Hongfu


Deep Complex Residual Network (DCRNet), MRI phase acceleration, QSM acceleration, compressed sensing, quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM)