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In Pattern recognition letters

Background : COVID-19 has caused 3.34m deaths till 13/May/2021. It is now still causing confirmed cases and ongoing deaths every day.

Method : This study investigated whether fusing chest CT with chest X-ray can help improve the AI's diagnosis performance. Data harmonization is employed to make a homogeneous dataset. We create an end-to-end multiple-input deep convolutional attention network (MIDCAN) by using the convolutional block attention module (CBAM). One input of our model receives 3D chest CT image, and other input receives 2D X-ray image. Besides, multiple-way data augmentation is used to generate fake data on training set. Grad-CAM is used to give explainable heatmap.

Results : The proposed MIDCAN achieves a sensitivity of 98.10±1.88%, a specificity of 97.95±2.26%, and an accuracy of 98.02±1.35%.

Conclusion : Our MIDCAN method provides better results than 8 state-of-the-art approaches. We demonstrate the using multiple modalities can achieve better results than individual modality. Also, we demonstrate that CBAM can help improve the diagnosis performance.

Zhang Yu-Dong, Zhang Zheng, Zhang Xin, Wang Shui-Hua


Automatic differentiation, COVID-19, Chest CT, Chest X-ray, Convolutional neural network, Data harmonization, Deep learning, Multimodality, Multiple input