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In American journal of epidemiology ; h5-index 65.0

An increasing number of recent studies suggest doubly robust estimators with cross-fitting should be used when estimating causal effects with machine learning methods. However, existing programs that implement doubly robust estimators do not all support machine learning methods and cross-fitting, or provide estimates on multiplicative scales. To address these needs, we developed the AIPW package implementing the augmented inverse probability weighting (AIPW) estimation of average causal effects in R. Key features of the AIPW package includes cross-fitting and flexible covariate adjustment for observational studies and randomized trials (RCTs). In this paper, we use a simulated RCT to present the implementation of the AIPW estimator. We also perform a simulation study to evaluate the performance of the AIPW package compared with other doubly robust implementations including CausalGAM, npcausal, tmle, and tmle3. Our simulation shows that the xtbfAIPW package yielded comparable performance to other programs. Furthermore, we also found that cross-fitting substantively decreases the bias and improves the confidence interval coverage for doubly robust estimators fit with machine learning algorithms. Our findings suggest that the AIPW package can be a useful tool for estimating average causal effects with machine learning methods in RCTs and observational studies.

Zhong Yongqi, Kennedy Edward H, Bodnar Lisa M, Naimi Ashley I


Average Causal Effects, Causal Inference, Double Robust Estimation, Epidemiologic Methods, Machine Learning, Nonparametrics