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In Annals of translational medicine

Recent years have witnessed a rapidly expanding use of artificial intelligence and machine learning in medical imaging. Generative adversarial networks (GANs) are techniques to synthesize images based on artificial neural networks and deep learning. In addition to the flexibility and versatility inherent in deep learning on which the GANs are based, the potential problem-solving ability of the GANs has attracted attention and is being vigorously studied in the medical and molecular imaging fields. Here this narrative review provides a comprehensive overview for GANs and discuss their usefulness in medical and molecular imaging on the following topics: (I) data augmentation to increase training data for AI-based computer-aided diagnosis as a solution for the data-hungry nature of such training sets; (II) modality conversion to complement the shortcomings of a single modality that reflects certain physical measurement principles, such as from magnetic resonance (MR) to computed tomography (CT) images or vice versa; (III) de-noising to realize less injection and/or radiation dose for nuclear medicine and CT; (IV) image reconstruction for shortening MR acquisition time while maintaining high image quality; (V) super-resolution to produce a high-resolution image from low-resolution one; (VI) domain adaptation which utilizes knowledge such as supervised labels and annotations from a source domain to the target domain with no or insufficient knowledge; and (VII) image generation with disease severity and radiogenomics. GANs are promising tools for medical and molecular imaging. The progress of model architectures and their applications should continue to be noteworthy.

Koshino Kazuhiro, Werner Rudolf A, Pomper Martin G, Bundschuh Ralph A, Toriumi Fujio, Higuchi Takahiro, Rowe Steven P


Generative adversarial network (GAN), deep learning, image diagnosis, image synthesis, molecular imaging