In International journal of pattern recognition and artificial intelligence
Gaining environmental awareness through lateral head scanning (yaw rotations) is important for driving safety, especially when approaching intersections. Therefore, head scanning movements could be an important behavioral metric for driving safety research and driving risk mitigation systems. Tracking head scanning movements with a single in-car camera is preferred hardware-wise, but it is very challenging to track the head over almost a 180° range. In this paper we investigate two state-of-the-art methods, a multi-loss deep residual learning method with 50 layers (multi-loss ResNet-50) and an ORB feature-based simultaneous localization and mapping method (ORB-SLAM). While deep learning methods have been extensively studied for head pose detection, this is the first study in which SLAM has been employed to innovatively track head scanning over a very wide range. Our laboratory experimental results showed that ORB-SLAM was more accurate than multi-loss ResNet-50, which often failed when many facial features were not in the view. On the contrary, ORB-SLAM was able to continue tracking as it doesn't rely on particular facial features. Testing with real driving videos demonstrated the feasibility of using ORB-SLAM for tracking large lateral head scans in naturalistic video data.
Wang Shuhang, Li Jianfeng, Yang Pengshuai, Gao Tianxiao, Bowers Alex R, Luo Gang
ORB-SLAM, deep learning, driving, head scanning