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In AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE : Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors and medulloblastomas have similar imaging and histologic features but distinctly different outcomes. We hypothesized that they could be distinguished by MR imaging-based radiomic phenotypes.

MATERIALS AND METHODS : We retrospectively assembled T2-weighted and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images of 48 posterior fossa atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors and 96 match-paired medulloblastomas from 7 institutions. Using a holdout test set, we measured the performance of 6 candidate classifier models using 6 imaging features derived by sparse regression of 900 T2WI and 900 T1WI Imaging Biomarker Standardization Initiative-based radiomics features.

RESULTS : From the originally extracted 1800 total Imaging Biomarker Standardization Initiative-based features, sparse regression consistently reduced the feature set to 1 from T1WI and 5 from T2WI. Among classifier models, logistic regression performed with the highest AUC of 0.86, with sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and F1 scores of 0.80, 0.82, 0.81, and 0.85, respectively. The top 3 important Imaging Biomarker Standardization Initiative features, by decreasing order of relative contribution, included voxel intensity at the 90th percentile, inverse difference moment normalized, and kurtosis-all from T2WI.

CONCLUSIONS : Six quantitative signatures of image intensity, texture, and morphology distinguish atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors from medulloblastomas with high prediction performance across different machine learning strategies. Use of this technique for preoperative diagnosis of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors could significantly inform therapeutic strategies and patient care discussions.

Zhang M, Wong S W, Lummus S, Han M, Radmanesh A, Ahmadian S S, Prolo L M, Lai H, Eghbal A, Oztekin O, Cheshier S H, Fisher P G, Ho C Y, Vogel H, Vitanza N A, Lober R M, Grant G A, Jaju A, Yeom K W