In Brain : a journal of neurology
Exaggerated bursts of activity at frequencies in the low beta band are a well-established phenomenon in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) of patients with Parkinson's disease. However, such activity is only moderately correlated with motor impairment. Here we test the hypothesis that beta bursts are just one of several dynamic states in the STN local field potential (LFP) in Parkinson's disease, and that together these different states predict motor impairment with high fidelity. LFPs were recorded in 32 patients (64 hemispheres) undergoing deep brain stimulation surgery targeting the STN. Recordings were performed following overnight withdrawal of anti-parkinsonian medication, and after administration of levodopa. LFPs were analysed using Hidden Markov Modelling to identify transient spectral states with frequencies under 40 Hz. Findings in the low beta frequency band were similar to those previously reported; levodopa reduced occurrence rate and duration of low beta states, and the greater the reductions, the greater the improvement in motor impairment. However, additional LFP states were distinguished in the theta, alpha and high beta bands, and these behaved in an opposite manner. They were increased in occurrence rate and duration by levodopa, and the greater the increases, the greater the improvement in motor impairment. In addition, levodopa favoured the transition of low beta states to other spectral states. When all LFP states and corresponding features were considered in a multivariate model it was possible to predict 50% of the variance in patients' hemibody impairment OFF medication, and in the change in hemibody impairment following levodopa. This only improved slightly if signal amplitude or gamma band features were also included in the multivariate model. In addition, it compares with a prediction of only 16% of the variance when using beta bursts alone. We conclude that multiple spectral states in the STN LFP have a bearing on motor impairment, and that levodopa-induced shifts in the balance between these states can predict clinical change with high fidelity. This is important in suggesting that some states might be upregulated to improve parkinsonism and in suggesting how LFP feedback can be made more informative in closed-loop deep brain stimulation systems.
Khawaldeh Saed, Tinkhauser Gerd, Torrecillos Flavie, He Shenghong, Foltynie Thomas, Limousin Patricia, Zrinzo Ludvic, Oswal Ashwini, Quinn Andrew J, Vidaurre Diego, Tan Huiling, Litvak Vladimir, Kühn Andrea, Woolrich Mark, Brown Peter
Parkinson’s disease, deep brain recording, hidden Markov modelling, machine learning, time-series analysis