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In Therapeutic advances in gastrointestinal endoscopy

Colonoscopy remains the gold standard exam for colorectal cancer screening due to its ability to detect and resect pre-cancerous lesions in the colon. However, its performance is greatly operator dependent. Studies have shown that up to one-quarter of colorectal polyps can be missed on a single colonoscopy, leading to high rates of interval colorectal cancer. In addition, the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy has proposed the "resect-and-discard" and "diagnose-and-leave" strategies for diminutive colorectal polyps to reduce the costs of unnecessary polyp resection and pathology evaluation. However, the performance of optical biopsy has been suboptimal in community practice. With recent improvements in machine-learning techniques, artificial intelligence-assisted computer-aided detection and diagnosis have been increasingly utilized by endoscopists. The application of computer-aided design on real-time colonoscopy has been shown to increase the adenoma detection rate while decreasing the withdrawal time and improve endoscopists' optical biopsy accuracy, while reducing the time to make the diagnosis. These are promising steps toward standardization and improvement of colonoscopy quality, and implementation of "resect-and-discard" and "diagnose-and-leave" strategies. Yet, issues such as real-world applications and regulatory approval need to be addressed before artificial intelligence models can be successfully implemented in clinical practice. In this review, we summarize the recent literature on the application of artificial intelligence for detection and characterization of colorectal polyps and review the limitation of existing artificial intelligence technologies and future directions for this field.

Parsa Nasim, Byrne Michael F

artificial intelligence, computer-aided detection, computer-aided diagnosis, convolutional neural network, deep learning