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In Clinical research in cardiology : official journal of the German Cardiac Society

OBJECTIVE : Machine learning (ML) algorithm can improve risk prediction because ML can select features and segment continuous variables effectively unbiased. We generated a risk score model for mortality with ML algorithms in East-Asian patients with heart failure (HF).

METHODS : From the Korean Acute Heart Failure (KorAHF) registry, we used the data of 3683 patients with 27 continuous and 44 categorical variables. Grouped Lasso algorithm was used for the feature selection, and a novel continuous variable segmentation algorithm which is based on change-point analysis was developed for effectively segmenting the ranges of the continuous variables. Then, a risk score was assigned to each feature reflecting nonlinear relationship between features and survival times, and an integer score of maximum 100 was calculated for each patient.

RESULTS : During 3-year follow-up time, 32.8% patients died. Using grouped Lasso, we identified 15 highly significant independent clinical features. The calculated risk score of each patient ranged between 1 and 71 points with a median of 36 (interquartile range: 27-45). The 3-year survival differed according to the quintiles of the risk score, being 80% and 17% in the 1st and 5th quintile, respectively. In addition, ML risk score had higher AUCs than MAGGIC-HF score to predict 1-year mortality (0.751 vs. 0.711, P < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS : In East-Asian patients with HF, a novel risk score model based on ML and the new continuous variable segmentation algorithm performs better for mortality prediction than conventional prediction models.

CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION : Unique identifier: INCT01389843 .

Kim Wonse, Park Jin Joo, Lee Hae-Young, Kim Kye Hun, Yoo Byung-Su, Kang Seok-Min, Baek Sang Hong, Jeon Eun-Seok, Kim Jae-Joong, Cho Myeong-Chan, Chae Shung Chull, Oh Byung-Hee, Kook Woong, Choi Dong-Ju


Change-point analysis, Grouped Lasso, Heart failure, Machine learning, Mortality, Prognostic model